In modern cryptosystems, users generate public and private keys that guarantee security based on computational complexity and use them to encrypt and decrypt information. Recently however, modern public-key cryptosystems have faced potential security loopholes against quantum computers with great computational power. As a solution, quantum cryptosystems have been highly noticed. They use quantum keys that guarantee security based on quantum physics rather than computational complexity; thus, they are secure even against quantum computers. Therefore, quantum cryptosystems are expected to replace modern cryptosystems.